MODEL INTERVENSI PENYULUHAN KESEHATAN GIGI DAN MATA PADA ANAK SEKOLAH DASAR NEGERI ARCAMANIK BANDUNG

Tuti Surtimanah, Irfan Nafis Sjamsuddin, Marya Hana, Gina Mardiatul

Abstract


Tahun 2018 di Indonesia 54% anak 5-9 tahun dan 41,4% anak 10-14 tahun menderita gigi rusak, berlubang atau sakit. Prevalensi miopia anak Asia 29%, kelainan refraksi 43% menyebabkan kebutaan apabila tidak terkoreksi. Tahun 2020 anak 6-14 tahun di Dusun I Desa Mekarmanik, 38,1% berisiko kelainan gigi mulut dan 18,7% berisiko kelainan mata. Salah satu penyebab kelainan pengetahuan rendah dan belum berperilaku pencegahan tepat. Tujuan penelitian mengetahui model intervensi penyuluhan kesehatan gigi dan mata yang efektif meningkatkan pengetahuan anak SD. Metode penelitian, disain kuasi eksperimental pre-pos tes dua kelompok intervensi. Penyuluhan kesehatan gigi pada 166 anak kelas 1,2,3 (media video dan lembar balik), penyuluhan kesehatan mata pada 141 anak kelas 4,5,6 (media video dan puzzle) di SDN 01 dan 03 Arcamanik. Dilakukan ujibeda pre-pos tes pengetahuan setiap kelompok intervensi serta ujibeda perubahan pengetahuan antar kelompok intervensi. Terdapat perbedaan signifikan (p 0,000) pengetahuan kesehatan gigi sebelum dan sesudah intervensi pada anak yang mendapat penyuluhan media video maupun lembar balik. Rata-rata perubahan pengetahuan kesehatan gigi lebih tinggi pada anak yang mendapat penyuluhan media video dibandingkan lembar balik (p 0,000). Terdapat perbedaan signifikan (p 0,000) perubahan pengetahuan kesehatan mata sebelum dan sesudah intervensi pada anak yang mendapat penyuluhan media video maupun puzzle. Tidak terdapat perbedaan signifikan (p>0,05) rata-rata perubahan pengetahuan kesehatan mata pada anak yang mendapat penyuluhan media video dan puzzle. Penyuluhan kesehatan gigi pada anak SD lebih efektif menggunakan media video dibanding lembar balik. Penyuluhan kesehatan mata bisa menggunakan media video maupun puzzle.

---

In Indonesia at 2018, 54% of 5-9 years old and 41.4% of 10-14 year old suffered tooth decay, cavities or illness. The myopia prevalence in Asian children is 29%, refractive error 43% causes blindness if uncorrected. In 2020, 6-14 years old in Dusun I Mekarmanik Village, 38.1% were at risk of oral defects and 18.7% were at risk of eye disorders. One of the factors causing this disorder is low knowledge and not yet behave prevention behaviour. The study purpose was to find out which dental and eye health education intervention model was effective in increasing the knowledge children. Research methodology, quasi-experimental design pre-post test of two intervention groups. Dental health education to 166 children of 1,2,3 grade (video and flipchart media), eye health education to 141 children of 4,5,6 grade (video and puzzle media) in SDN 01 and 03 Arcamanik. Different pre-post tests of knowledge for each intervention group and different tests of knowledge change between intervention groups were conducted. The results showed a significant difference (p 0,000) of dental health knowledge before and after intervention in children who received video media and flipchart. The average change in dental health knowledge was higher in children who received video media than the flipchart (p. 0,000). There’s a significant difference (p 0,000) in changes in eye health knowledge before and after intervention in children who received education with video and puzzle media. There’s no significant difference (p> 0.05) on average changes in eye health knowledge in children who received education with video and puzzle media. It was concluded that dental health education in elementary school children was more effective using video media than flipchart. Eye health education can use video or puzzle media.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Riskesdas K. Hasil Utama Riset Kesehata Dasar (RISKESDAS). In: Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical [Internet]. 2018. p. 1–200. Available from: http://arxiv.org/abs/1011.1669%0Ahttp://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1751-8113/44/8/085201%0Ahttp://stacks.

Jakarta, Kementerian Kesehatan RI. Profil Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. and 2017.

Binu, J., Jose, R., & Simon, C. (2016). Prevalence of myopia and its associated risk factors among school children in Kollam-Kerala. International Jurnal of Health Sciences & Research, 6(6), 30-38.

Musiana, Nurhayati, & Sunarsih. (2019). Faktor risiko yang berhubungan dengan kejadian myopia pada anak usia Sekolah. Jurnal Ilmiah Keperawatan Sai Betik, 15(1), 71-77.

Nurjanah. (2018). Skrining miopia pada siswa Sekolah Dasar di Kabupaten Temanggung. Jurnal Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat, 9(2), 134-140

RI, Kementerian Kesehatan. Peta Jalan Penanggulangan di Indonesia 2017-2020 . 2018.

Czepita, M., Kuprjanowicz, L., Safranow, K., Mojsa, A., Majdanik, E., Ustianowska, M., & Czepitat, D. The role of reading, writing, using a computer, or watching television in the development of miopia. Opthalmology Journal, 1(2), 53-57. 2016.

Dinkes Jabar. Profil Kesehatan Jawa Barat 2017. In: kesehatan anak usia sekolah. Bandung: Dinas kesehatan Provinsi Jawa barat; 2018. p. 1–236.

Muntafiah, A., Afifah, Permata, S.O., Murti, H.I., & Santosa, Q. (2018). Promosi kesehatan untuk mencegah miopi dan komplikasinya pada murid SDN 2 Berkoh, Purwokerto. Jurnal Pengabdian Pada Masyarakat, 3(1), 21-26.

Notoatmodjo, S. 2005. Promosi Kesehatan: Teori dan Aplikasi. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.

Laporan Pengalaman Belajar Lapangan Tahun 2020 STIKes Dharma Husada Bandung.

Primavera IRC, Iwan Permana Suwarna MP. Pengaruh Media Audio Visual Terhadap Hasil Belajar Siswa Kelas XI Pada Konsep Elastisitas. Pros Semin Nas Pendidik IPA FITK UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta. 2014;(1):122–9.

Razi, P., & Rosmawati R. Perbandingan Efektivitas Edukasi Kesehatan Gigi Dengan Metode Bermain , Video Dan Boneka Dalam Meningkatkan Keterampilan. J Bahana Kesehat Masy. 2018;2(2):101–6.

Sara. M. Mohamed Nbaia1, Ari Yuniastuti2, Dyah Rini Indriyanti2. Relationship Between Oral Hygiene And Dietary Behaviour And Dental Caries Status In Primary School Children. Jurnal Kemas 13 (3) (2018) 411-416. DOI https://doi.org/10.15294/kemas.v13i3.13314.

P.S. Casamassimo1,2, J.Y. Lee3,4, M.L. Marazita5,6,7, P. Milgrom8, D.L. Chi8, and K. Divaris3,9*. Improving Children’s Oral Health: An Interdisciplinary Research Framework. © International & American Associations for Dental Research J Dent Res 93(10):938-942, 2014. DOI: 10.1177/0022034514547273

Carol Cristina Guarnizo-Herreño, DDS, MPH. George L. Wehby, MPH, Ph.D.. George L. Wehby: george-wehby@uiowa.edu. Children’s Dental Health, School Performance and Psychosocial Well-Being. J Pediatr. 2012 December ; 161(6): 1153–1159.e2. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2012.05.025.

Diah Ayu Maharani*, Anton Rahardjo. Mothers' Dental Health Behaviors And Mother-Child's Dental Caries Experiences: Study Of A Suburb Area In Indonesia. Makara, Kesehatan, Vol. 16, No. 2, Desember 2012: 72-76.

Collins CC, Villa-Torres L, Sams LD, Zeldin LP, Divaris K (2016) Framing Young Childrens Oral Health: A Participatory Action Research Project. PLoS ONE 11(8): e0161728. doi:10.1371/journal. pone.0161728.

Papilaya EA, Zuliari K, . J. Perbandingan pengaruh promosi kesehatan menggunakan media audio dengan media audio-visual terhadap perilaku kesehatan gigi dan mulut siswa SD. e-GIGI. 2016;4(2):1–5.

Jennifer A. Ebeigbe_, Chike Martin Emedike. Parents’ awareness and perception of children’s eye diseases in Nigeria. Journal of Optometry (2017) 10, 104---110.

Cassetti, V, et al. 2019. Challenges of Eye Health Care in Children and Strategies to Improve Treatment Uptake: A Qualitative Study from the Perspective of Eye Care Professionals in the UK. British and Irish Orthoptic Journal, 15(1), pp. 96–104. DOI: https://doi.org/10.22599/bioj.133.

Anthea M Burnett,a Aryati Yashadhana,a Ling Lee,a Nina Serova,a Daveena Braina & Kovin Naidooa. Interventions to improve school-based eye-care services in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review. Bull World Health Organ 2018;96:682–694D | doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2471/BLT.18.212332.

Milka Madaha Mafwiri1*, Rodrick Kisenge2 and Clare Elizabeth Gilbert3. A pilot study to evaluate incorporating eye care for children into reproductive and child health services in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania: a historical comparison study. BMC Nursing 2014, 13:15 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6955/13/15.

Sukati VN, Moodley VR, Mashige KP. Knowledge and practices of parents about child eye health care in the public sector in Swaziland. Afr J Prm Health Care Fam Med. 2018;10(1), a1808. https://doi.org/10.4102/ phcfm.v10i1.1808.

Shrestha GS, Sigdel R, Shrestha JB, Sharma AK, Shrestha R, Mishra SK, et al. Awareness of eye health and diseases among the population of the hilly region of Nepal. J Ophthalmic Vis Res 2018;13:461-9.

Cassetti, V, et al. 2019. Challenges of Eye Health Care in Children and Strategies to Improve Treatment Uptake: A Qualitative Study from the Perspective of Eye Care Professionals in the UK. British and Irish Orthoptic Journal, 15(1), pp. 96–104. DOI: https://doi.org/10.22599/bioj.133

Jennifer A. Ebeigbe_, Chike Martin Emedike. Parents’ awareness and perception of children’s eye diseases in Nigeria Journal of Optometry (2017) 10, 104---110 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/bync-nd/4.0/

Aswadi., Khairuddin., & Taher, A. (2016). Penerapan puzzle gempa bumi dan tsunami untuk meningkatkan pengetahuan pengurangan risiko bencana pada siswa kelas v sd negeri 15 banda aceh. Jurnal Ilmu Kebencanaan. 3(2), 39-44.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.
Powered by Puskom-UMJ