MENINGKATKAN DETEKSI DINI KANKER PAYUDARA DI NEGARA BERPENDAPATAN MENENGAH KE BAWAH: Systematic Review

Ade Tzarina Prisella Purnamasari, Wahyu Sulistiadi

Abstract


Kanker payudara masih menjadi beban yang besar bagi negara berpendapatan menengah ke bawah dengan kasus baru dan tingkat kematian yang meningkat setiap tahun. Salah satu yang menjadi faktor penyebab adalah diagnosis kanker pada stadium lanjut. Hal ini diketahui dapat dikurangi dengan deteksi dini. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melihat metode-metode yang digunakan oleh beberapa negara berpendapatan menengah ke bawah yang memiliki dampak positif terhadap peningkatan deteksi dini kanker payudara dengan systematic review. Systematic review dilakukan dengan mengidentifikasi artikel dari beberapa database yaitu ScienceDirect, ProQuest, PubMed, dan Scopus. Kata kunci yang digunakan dalam proses pencarian merupakan kombinasi dari improve, early detection, early diagnosis, screening, breast cancer, dan low middle-income country. Kriteria inklusi adalah artikel full text berbahasa Inggris yang dipublikasi pada Januari 2015 hingga Januari 2020 dengan latar penelitian negara berpendapatan menengah ke bawah. Lima artikel didapatkan dari proses seleksi menggunakan diagram alir PRISMA. Metode intervensi yang digunakan dalam artikel yang didapatkan dalam upaya meningkatkan deteksi dini kanker payudara adalah meningkatkan kesadaran dengan mengirimkan brosur mengenai kesadaran tentang kanker payudara setiap tahun, melatih masyarakat awam dan sukarelawan untuk melakukan skrining, melatih tenaga profesional dan melakukan program quality assurance, serta menggunakan model deteksi dini yang diimplementasi di program kontrol kanker nasional. Metode-metode ini diketahui berhasil meningkatkan deteksi dini kanker payudara di negara berpendapatan menengah ke bawah. Oleh karena itu, negara berpendapatan menengah ke bawah perlu memprioritaskan deteksi dini agar dapat mengatasi beban akibat kanker payudara dan mulai untuk Menyusun strategi yang jelas agar program atau metode yang dijalankan dapat terjamin pembentukan dan keberlanjutannya.

Kata Kunci: kanker payudara, deteksi dini, negara berpendapatan menengah ke bawa

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Cancer, especially breast cancer, is still becoming an unsolved problem in LMICs. Breast cancer incidence and mortality keep increasing by year, mainly caused by late-stage diagnosis of the breast cancer that still presented mostly in LMICs. One of the already known way to decrease it is by doing early detection. This study systematically reviewed the early detection programs or methods in LMICs that had positive result in improving breast cancer’s early detection. The systematic review was carried out by identifying literatures on some online databases, such as ScienceDirect, ProQuest, PubMed, dan Scopus. The literatures were searched using keywords that were combination of improve, early detection, early diagnosis, screening, breast cancer, dan low middle-income country. Criteria of inclusion for this systematic review were English literatures, full text, published in January 2015 – January 2020, and the researches were conducted in LMICs. Five literatures were obtained using PRISMA flow diagram. Intervention programs or methods that mentioned in the literatures were annually sending breast cancer awareness brochures by mail, task shifting to trained laywomen and volunteers for screening, training programs for health professionals and doing quality assurance periodically, and implementing national program for cancer control along with the early detection model. These programs and methods were proofed to have positive impact in improving early detection for breast cancer in LMICs. Prioritizing early detection programs need to be done in LMICs to resolve breast cancer burden. Solid strategies should be established to make sure the implementation and sustainability of the programs.

Keywords: early detection, screening, breast cancer, low middle-income country

 


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References


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