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Editorial Policies

Focus and Scope

NALARs is an architecture journal which presents articles based on architectural research in micro, mezo and macro. Published articles cover all subjects as follow: architectural behaviour, space and place, traditional architecture, digital architecture, urban planning and urban design, building technology and building science.


Section Policies


Checked Open Submissions Checked Indexed Checked Peer Reviewed

Peer Review Process




The peer review process

The peer review process can be broadly summarized into 10 steps,

  1. Submission of paper. The corresponding or submitting author submits the paper to the journal. This is usually via an online system such as Scholar-One Manuscripts. Occasionally, journals may accept submissions by email.
  2. Editorial office assessment. The journal checks the paper’s composition and arrangement against the journal’s Author Guidelines to make sure it includes the required sections and stylizations. The quality of the paper is not assessed at this point.
  3. Appraisal by editor in chief. The Editor in Chief checks that the paper is appropriate for the journal and is sufficiently original and interesting. If not, the paper may be rejected without being reviewed any further.
  4. EIC assign an associate editor (second editor). Some journals have Associate Editors who handle the peer review. If they do, they would be assigned at this stage.
  5. Invitation to reviewer. The handling editor sends invitations to individuals he or she believes would be appropriate reviewers. As responses are received, further invitations are issued, if necessary, until the required number of acceptances is obtained – commonly this is 2, but there is some variation between journals.
  6. Respons to invitation. Potential reviewers consider the invitation against their own expertise, conflicts of interest and availability. They then accept or decline. If possible, when declining, they might also suggest alternative reviewers.
  7. Review is conducted. The reviewer sets time aside to read the paper several times. The first read is used to form an initial impression of the work. If major problems are found at this stage, the reviewer may feel comfortable rejecting the paper without further work. Otherwise they will read the paper several more times, taking notes so as to build a detailed point-by-point review. The review is then submitted to the journal, with a recommendation to accept or reject it – or else with a request for revision (usually flagged as either major or minor) before it is reconsidered.
  8. Journal evaluates the reviewer. The handling editor considers all the returned reviews before making an overall decision. If the reviews differ widely, the editor may invite an additional reviewer so as to get an extra opinion before making a decision.
  9. The decision is communicated. The editor sends a decision email to the author including any relevant reviewer comments. Whether the comments are anonymous or not will depend on the type of peer review that the journal operates.
  10. Next step. If accepted, the paper is sent to production. If the article is rejected or sent back for either major or minor revision, the handling editor should include constructive comments from the reviewers to help the author improve the article. At this point, reviewers should also be sent an email or letter letting them know the outcome of their review. If the paper was sent back for revision, the reviewers should expect to receive a new version, unless they have opted out of further participation. However, where only minor changes were requested this follow-up review might be done by the handling editor.


Open Access Policy

This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.



This journal utilizes the LOCKSS system to create a distributed archiving system among participating libraries and permits those libraries to create permanent archives of the journal for purposes of preservation and restoration. More...


NALARs Jurnal Arsitektur

Architectural Journal of NALARs Universitas Muhammadiyah Jakarta is a national journal which provide articles from research base.

The publication is a routine one in January and July in every year. The first publication of NALARs is in 2002 and it has been published continually and consistantly in every 6 months. 

Architectural Journal of NALARs presents articles based on architectural research in micro, mezo and macro. Published articles cover all subjects as follow: architectural behaviour, space and place, traditional architecture, digital architecture, urban planning and urban design, building technology and building science.

p-ISSN: 1412 –3266 

e-ISSN: 2549– 6832

Architectural Journal of NALARs invites all lecturers, academic staffs, researchers, reviewers and related field to architecture to contribute in the publication by sending and submitting articles based on research. All submitted articles will be reviewed by peer-review board. After the process of review completed, all the result will be informed to author through Open Journal System (OJS) as well as email to author.

Editor in Chief


NALARs Journal of Architecture



Abstracting and Indexing Journal

Indexed by:

Directory of Open Access JournalGarba Rujukan Digital(Garuda)



Index Copernicus International (ICI)CiteFactorRoad



Publication Ethic

NALARs is a scientific publication that contains research results in the field of architecture and built environment. This statement of ethical codes of ethics is a statement of ethical code of all parties involved in the process of publication of this scientific journal of managers, editors, bestari partners, and authors / authors. This code of ethics of scientific publication is based on the Head of LIPI Regulation No. 5 of 2014 on the Code of Ethics of Scientific Publications, which in essence upholds three ethical values in publications, namely (i) Neutrality, ie free of conflict of interest in the management of publications ; (ii) Justice, namely to authorize authors to author / authors; and (iii) Honesty, ie free from duplication, fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism (DF2P) in publication.
Journal Manager Duties and Responsibilities
1. Determining the name of the journal, scope of science, scaling, and accreditation if necessary.
2. Determine the board editor's membership.
3. Define the relationship between publishers, editors, bestari partners, and others in a contract.
4. Appreciate the things that are confidential, both for contributing researchers, authors / authors, editors, or bestari partners.
5. Implementing norms and provisions on intellectual property rights, especially copyright.
6. Review the journal policy and submit it to the author / author, editor board, bestari's partner, and reader.
7. Make code guidelines behave for editors and partners bestari.
8. Publish the journal regularly.
9. Ensure the availability of funding sources for the sustainability of journal issuance.
10. Build a network of cooperation and marketing.
11. Preparing licensing and other legality aspects.
Duties and Responsibilities of the Editor
1. Meeting the needs of readers and authors / authors,
2. Seeking continuous improvement of the quality of publications,
3. Implementing processes to ensure the quality of published papers,
4. Prioritize freedom of expression,
5. Maintaining the integrity of the author's academic record,
6. Deliver corrections, clarifications, withdrawals and apologies if necessary,
7. Responsible for the style and format of writing, while the contents and all statements in the paper is the responsibility of the author / author,
8. Actively ask the opinions of authors, readers, bestari partners, and editor board members to improve the quality of publications,
9. Encourage assessment of the journal if any findings,
10. Support initiatives to reduce research and publication errors by requesting authors to attach an Ethical Clearance form approved by the Ethical Clearance Commission,
11. Support initiatives to educate researchers about ethical publications,
12. Assessing the effect of the publishing policy on the author / author's attitudes and the bestari's partners and improving them to increase responsibility and minimize errors,
13. Have open minds to new opinions or views of others that may be contrary to personal opinion,
14. Does not defend its own opinion, author or third party which may result in a non-objective decision,
15. Encourage authors / writers, in order to make improvements to the paper to be published.
Duties and Responsibilities of Bestari Partners
1. Obtain the task of the editor to review the paper and submit the review to the editor, as a material to determine the feasibility of a paper to be published.
2. The reviewer shall not review any paper involving him, whether directly or indirectly
3. Maintain the author's privacy by not disseminating the results of corrections, suggestions, and recommendations by providing criticism, suggestions, feedback, and recommendations
4. Encourage authors / authors to make improvements to the papers
5. Reviewing the written works that have been improved in accordance with the standards that have been determined.
6. The papers are reviewed in a timely fashion according to the published style of scriptures (data collection methods, author's legality, conclusions, etc.).
Duties and Responsibilities Author / Author
1. Ensure that the list of authors / authors meets the criteria as the author / author.
2. Collectively responsible for the work and the contents of the article include methods, analysis, calculations, and details.
3. Express the origin of the resources (including funding), either directly or indirectly.
4. Explain the limitations in the study
5. Respond to comments made by the partners in a professional and timely manner.
6. Inform the editor if it will retract the paper.
7. Make a statement that the papers submitted for publication are original, have not been published anywhere in any language, and are not in the process of submitting to other publishers.


Call for Paper

Architectural Journal of NALARs Universitas Muhammadiyah Jakarta is a national journal which provide articles from research base.

The publication is a routine one in January and July in every year. The first publication of NALARs is in 2002 and it has been published continually and consistantly in every 6 months. 

Architectural Journal of NALARs presents articles based on architectural research in micro, mezo and macro. Published articles cover all subjects as follow: architectural behaviour, space and place, traditional architecture, digital architecture, urban planning and urban design, building technology and building science.

p-ISSN: 1412 –3266 

e-ISSN: 2549– 6832

Architectural Journal of NALARs invites all lecturers, academic staffs, researchers, reviewers and related field to architecture to contribute in the publication by sending and submitting articles based on research. All submitted articles will be reviewed by peer-review board. After the process of review completed, all the result will be informed to author through Open Journal System (OJS) as well as email to author.

Articles submitted through the following website: or email it to

For those who have not signed up please to the following link

Editor in chief


Article Processing Charge

Every accepted article should pay processing fee (Article Processing Charger)
Since edition Juli 2024 the amount of the fee is Rp. 700.000. And this amount could be changed depend on the management policy of NALARs. if author needs more hardcopy, author should pay another cost of the hardcopy Rp. 175.000/ exemplar
All the above fee should be transferred to this accout: Bank Syariah Indonesia Account Number: 7036198863 under this name: Ari Widyati P QQ Jurusan Arsitektur UMJ


Writing Guidelines

Authors can download the NALARs template which can be found in the following link

Title of the article is written using Arial font size 11, capitalized, bold, centered, consisting of maximum of 15 words and describing the content of the script. Full name of the author written using Arial font size 10 with no any title.

The correspondence address is written completely below the author's name including the name of institution, address of the institution, telephone number and email address. Title of the article, name of the authors and institution written in centered alignment. Between title and author’s name is double spaces (10 pt) apart and between authors’ name and the name of institution is single space (10 pt). The script presented in a narrative (without numbering in front subtitles) and avoid writing in the form of subtitles.

Abstract is written in Bahasa Indonesia and English using Arial font size 10, single space and with a maximum 250 words. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia written with standard grammar with the enhanced spelling. Avoid abbreviations and mathematical formula in the text of abstract. Abstract describes briefly about background of the problems, objectives, methodologies, and conclusions. The complete sentences at least contains subject and predicate elements. In passive sentences writing, subject and predicate must be clear, not ambiguous with words of object.

Abstract is written with the format of column. Keywords are written under abstract text, arranged alphabetically and separated by semicolons. Keywords are written in regular format with Arial font size 10.

The margin of contents page are 3 cm at top and left side, 2 cm at right and below. The header distance from the edge of the paper is 0.5 inch and the footer distance from the edge of the paper is 0.5 inch. Articles typed in MS Word program with Arial font typeface size of 10 pt, single spacing and in a two-column format (column = 2.98 inch width and spacing column = 0.5 inch). Each article consists of 10-12 pages (including figures and tables) and written justified. Distance between paragraphs using single spacing.

Figures and tables are placed in clusters of text and annotated with caption. Caption placed bellow the corresponding figure, and the title of tables placed at the top of the table. The caption of figures and the title of tables are numbered sequentially. The figures must be guaranteed can be printed clearly even though it is reduced to 50%. Figures or schematic diagrams should be placed between text groups. Figure is not framed. Tables displayed without vertical lines, whereas the horizontal lines shows only 3 main lines that is 2 horizontal lines at the top and bellow the title of each table column, and 1 closing line after the bottom row.

Notation List written in alphabetical order. Latin letters are written first, followed by an Arabic letter.

Citation writing from a script or literature using the Harvard system. The source of the literature information consists only the name of the authors and the year of publication. Example: Usaha-usaha untuk mencari sistem penyimpanan panas yang lebih baik telah banyak dilakukan, diantaranya adalah menggunakan panas laten peleburan dari PCM (Yanadoro dan Matsuda, 2006 for one or two authors; Sutrisno dkk., 2011; Smith et al., 2011 for more than two authors). According to Sanyono (2010), ………etc.

The list of bibliography is sorted in the order of which the reference is referred to the article and numbered with bracket numbering [1], [2], etc. the author’s name in the bibliography written in rules of the last name followed by the first name after separated by a comma. The title of the referenced book is written using Arial font size 10, bold, italic, and underlined. All literatures referenced in the script should be listed in the bibliography. Preferred bibliography is an article taken from recent scientific publication/journal maximum 5 years prior to paper submission. Referral writing guide: last name (surname) and year (Wijayanti, 2007).


Article Submission

Articles are submitted online by accessing the NALARs website:

Each author must have a user name and password to register the article. Metadata section must be completely filled with all the authors’ data. Letter to declare that the articles are free of plagiarism may accompany every submitted articles. For authors who have problems with the online submitting can contact the editor via

Each article will be reviewed by the Editorial Board and/or partner of Reviewers within 2 weeks. Correspondence will be addressed to the first author. The author should immediately fix the article according to the reviewer's instructions. If the article has been declared accepted both in Major Revision and Minor Revision, then the author must immediately improve the article.

Editors have right to reject submitted article if they are not relevant to the field of Architecture, not up to date or have been published. 



Journal Ethic Statement

Duties of Authors

  1. Reporting Standards:
    Authors of reports of original research should present an accurate account of the work performed as well as an objective discussion of its significance. Underlying data should be represented accurately in the paper. A paper should contain sufficient detail and references to permit others to replicate the work. Fraudulent or knowingly inaccurate statements constitute unethical behaviour and are unacceptable.
  2. Data Access and Retention:
    Authors are asked to provide the raw data in connection with a paper for editorial review, and should be prepared to provide public access to such data (consistent with the ALPSP-STM Statement on Data and Databases), if practicable, and should in any event be prepared to retain such data for a reasonable time after publication.
  3. Originality and Plagiarism: The authors should ensure that they have written entirely original works, and if the authors have used the work and/or words of others that this has been appropriately cited or quoted.
  4. Multiple, Redundant or Concurrent Publication:
    An author should not, in general, publish manuscripts describing essentially the same research in more than one journal or primary publication. Submitting the same manuscript to more than one journal concurrently constitutes unethical publishing behaviour and is unacceptable.
  5. Acknowledgement of Sources:
    Proper acknowledgement of the work of others must always be given. Authors should cite publications that have been influential in determining the nature of the reported work.
  6. Authorship of the Paper:
    Authorship should be limited to those who have made a significant contribution to the conception, design, execution, or interpretation of the reported study. All those who have made significant contributions should be listed as co-authors. Where there are others who have participated in certain substantive aspects of the research project, they should be acknowledged or listed as contributors. The corresponding author should ensure that all appropriate co-authors and no inappropriate co-authors are included on the paper and that all co-authors have seen and approved the final version of the paper and have agreed to its submission for publication.
  7. Disclosure and Conflicts of Interest:
    All authors should disclose in their manuscript any financial or another substantive conflict of interest that might be construed to influence the results or interpretation of their manuscript. All sources of financial support for the project should be disclosed.
  8. Fundamental errors in published works:
    When an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in his/her own published work, it is the author’s obligation to promptly notify the journal editor or publisher and cooperate with the editor to retract or correct the paper.
  9. Hazards and Human or Animal Subjects:
    If the work involves chemicals, procedures or equipment that have any unusual hazards inherent in their use, the author must clearly identify these in the manuscript.

Duties of Editors

  1. Fair Play:
    An editor at any time evaluate manuscripts for their intellectual content without regard to race, gender, sexual orientation, religious belief, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political philosophy of the authors.
  2. Confidentiality:
    The editor and any editorial staff must not disclose any information about a submitted manuscript to anyone other than the corresponding author, reviewers, potential reviewers, other editorial advisers, and the publisher, as appropriate.
  3. Disclosure and Conflicts of Interest:
    Unpublished materials disclosed in a submitted manuscript must not be used in an editor's own research without the express written consent of the author.
  4. Publication Decisions:
    The editor board journal is responsible for deciding which of the articles submitted to the journal should be published. The validation of the work in question and its importance to researchers and readers must always drive such decisions. The editors may be guided by the policies of the journal's editorial board and constrained by such legal requirements as shall then be in force regarding libel, copyright infringement and plagiarism. The editors may confer with other editors or reviewers in making this decision.
  5. Review of Manuscripts:
    The editor must ensure that each manuscript is initially evaluated by the editor for originality. The editor should organise and use peer review fairly and wisely. Editors should explain their peer review processes in the information for authors and also indicate which parts of the journal are peer reviewed. The editor should use appropriate peer reviewers for papers that are considered for publication by selecting people with sufficient expertise and avoiding those with conflicts of interest.

Duties of Reviewers

  1. Contribution to Editorial Decisions:
    Peer review assists the editor in making editorial decisions and through the editorial communications with the author may also assist the author in improving the paper.
  2. Promptness:
    Any selected referee who feels unqualified to review the research reported in a manuscript or knows that its prompt review will be impossible should notify the editor and excuse himself from the review process
  3. Standards of Objectivity:
    Reviews should be conducted objectively. Personal criticism of the author is inappropriate. Referees should express their views clearly with supporting arguments.
  4. Confidentiality:
    Any manuscripts received for review must be treated as confidential documents. They must not be shown to or discussed with others except as authorised by the editor.
  5. Disclosure and Conflict of Interest:
    Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review must be kept confidential and not used for personal advantage. Reviewers should not consider manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the papers.
  6. Acknowledgement of Sources:
    Reviewers should identify relevant published work that has not been cited by the authors. Any statement that an observation, derivation, or argument had been previously reported should be accompanied by the relevant citation. A reviewer should also call to the editor's attention any substantial similarity or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and any other published paper of which they have personal knowledge.


Plagiarism Policy

NALARs Jurnal Arsitektur FT UMJ, Editorial board recognizes that plagiarism is not acceptable and therefore establishes the following policy stating specific actions (penalties) when plagiarism is identified in an article that is submitted for publication in NALARs.


Plagiarism involves the "use or close imitation of the language and thoughts of another author and the representation of them as one's own original work."


Papers must be original, unpublished, and not pending publication elsewhere. Any material taken verbatim from another source needs to be clearly identified as different from the present original text by (1) indentation, (2) use of quotation marks, and (3) identification of the source.

Any text of an amount exceeding fair use standards (herein defined as more than two or three sentences or the equivalent thereof) or any graphic material reproduced from another source requires permission from the copyright holder and, if feasible, the original author(s) and also requires identification of the source; e.g., previous publication.

When plagiarism is identified, the Editor in Chief responsible for the review of this paper and will agree on measures according to the extent of plagiarism detected in the paper in agreement with the following guidelines:

Level of Plagiaris

 1.Minor :

A short section of another article is plagiarized without any significant data or idea taken from the other paper

Action : A warning is given to the authors and a request to change the text and properly cite the original article is made

2.Intermediate: A significant portion of a paper is plagiarized without proper citation to the original paper

Action: The submitted article is rejected and the authors are forbidden to submit further articles for one year

3. Severe : A significant portion of a paper is plagiarized that involves reproducing original results or ideas presented in another publication

Action: The paper is rejected and the authors are forbidden to submit further articles for five years.


It is understood that all authors are responsible for the content of their submitted paper as they all sign the Jurnal Teknologi Copyright Transfer Form. If a penalty is imposed for plagiarism, all authors will be subject to the same penalty.

If a second case of plagiarism by the same author(s) is identified, a decision on the measures to be enforced will be made by the Editorial board (Editor-in-Chief, and Editorial members) with the Chair of the Editor in Chief. The author(s) might be forbidden to submit further articles forever.

This policy applies also to material reproduced from another publication by the same author(s). If an author uses text or figures that have previously been published, the corresponding paragraphs or figures should be identified and the previous publication referenced. It is understood that in case of a review paper or a paper of a tutorial nature much of the material was previously published.

The author should identify the source of the previously published material and obtain permission from the original author and the publisher. If an author submits a manuscript to Jurnal Teknologi with significant overlap with a manuscript submitted to another journal simultaneously, and this overlap is discovered during the review process or after the publications of both papers, the editor of the other journal is notified and the case is treated as a severe plagiarism case. Significant overlap means use of identical or almost identical figures and identical or slightly modified text for one half or more of the paper. For self plagiarism of less than one half of the paper but more than one tenth of the paper, the case shall be treated as intermediate plagiarism. If self plagiarism is confined to the methods section, the case shall be considered as minor plagiarism.

 If an author uses some of his previously published material to clarify the presentation of new results, the previously published material shall be identified and the difference to the present publication shall be mentioned. Permission to republish must be obtained from the copyright holder. In the case of a manuscript that was originally published in conference proceedings and then is submitted for publication in Jurnal Teknologi either in identical or in expanded form, the authors must identify the name of the conference proceedings and the date of the publication and obtain permission to republish from the copyright holder. The editor may decide not to accept this paper for publication.

However, an author shall be permitted to use material from an unpublished presentation, including visual displays, in a subsequent journal publication. In the case of a publication being submitted that was originally published in another language, the title, date and journal of the original publication must be identified by the authors, and the copyright must be obtained. The editor may accept such a translated publication to bring it to the attention of a wider audience. The editor may select a specific paper that had been published (e.g. a “historic” paper) for republication in order to provide a better perspective of a series of papers published in one issue of Jurnal Teknologi. This republication shall be clearly identified as such and the date and journal of the original publication shall be given, and the permission of the author(s) and the publisher shall be obtained.

The Jurnal Teknologi layout editor for the Journal is responsible for maintaining the list of authors subjected to penalties and will check that no authors of a submitted paper are on this list. If a banned author is identified, the layout editor will inform the Editor-in-Chief who will take appropriate measures. This policy will be posted on the web site with the instructions for submitting a manuscript, and a copy will be sent to the authors with the confirmation email upon initial receipt of their original manuscript. A sentence shall be added to the copyright transfer form to indicate that the author(s) have read the Plagiarism Policy.


Open Access Statement

Open Access

NALARs Jurnal Arsitektur publishes fully open access journals, which means that all articles are available on the internet to all users immediately upon publication. Non-commercial use and distribution in any medium is permitted, provided the author and the journal are properly credited.

Benefits of open access for authors, include:

  • Free access for all users worldwide
  • Authors retain copyright to their work
  • Increased visibility and readership
  • Rapid publication
  • No spatial constraints


Editorial Policy

Published articles in peer-reviewed journals serve as critical components in the development of an organized and respected system of knowledge. Peer review is an essential component in maintaining high standards in academic publications. Single-blind (single anonymized review) peer review is used to evaluate manuscripts submitted for publication in the Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Sciences. The identities of the reviewers are not revealed to the author in this type of review.

All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding the acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. Editors are not involved in decisions about papers that they have written themselves or have been written by family members or colleagues or which relate to products or services in which the editor has an interest. Any such submission is subject to all the journal's usual procedures, with peer review handled independently of the relevant section editors.

Independent Reviewers are asked to evaluate the quality of the manuscript and to provide a recommendation on whether a manuscript can be accepted, requires revisions, or should be rejected. Peer review of a submitted manuscript is carried out while keeping in mind the scope of the manuscript as well as the expertise of the reviewers involved. Manuscripts are forwarded for evaluation to the Editor-in-Chief (EiC and Section Editors as well as external reviewers to check:

Originality: The submitted manuscript should be original and have the quality to contribute to the respective field of research.

Significance: Results should be interpreted appropriately and significantly. Conclusions must be justified and supported by the results.

Layout and Format: The formatting of the manuscript should be according to the Author's Guidelines.

Interest to the Readers: The manuscript should fall within the scope of the journal.

English Level: The English language must be appropriate and understandable.

Overall Merit: Overall benefit of publishing the paper.

Editors/Editorial board members may recommend the acceptance or rejection of a manuscript by conducting the peer-review themselves based on their own knowledge and experience. The Editor-in-Chief(s) may request assistance and advice from other subject matter experts. The peer review is completed once at least two independent reviewers send a detailed report with their comments on the manuscript and their recommendations. The types of decisions are categorized below:

Accept as it is: The manuscript is accepted in its original form. This kind of decision outcome is quite uncommon.

Accept with minor revisions: The paper is accepted for publication after minor modifications or adjustments.

Accept after major revisions: The manuscript is accepted after major amendments. Authors are requested to make major revisions and resolve technique errors, acquire more data, perform a more comprehensive analysis, or even modify the research question to ensure that the manuscript contributes something unique to the body of work.

Revise and resubmit: The journal is willing to reconsider the manuscript in a subsequent round of decision-making provided that the authors make significant revisions to their manuscript.

Reject the manuscript: The manuscript is rejected with no opportunity of resubmission to the journal due to major errors.

The comments of the reviewers are checked by the Editor-in-Chief. The review reports are modified by the Editor-in-Chief if the comments contain sensitive information or are written in a manner that is unsuitable for scholarly communication. This kind of comment should be included in the review form's confidential section, which is only accessible to editors.


Dealing of Misconduct

Editor-in-Chief considers retracting a publication if the following criteria

  • They have clear evidence that the findings are unreliable, either because of a major error (e.g., miscalculation or experimental error), because of fabrication (e.g., of data), or falsification (e.g., image manipulation). It constitutes plagiarism
  • The findings have previously been published elsewhere without proper attribution to previous sources or disclosure to the editor, permission to republish, or justification (i.e., cases of redundant publication). It contains material or data without authorization for use
  • Copyright has been infringed, or there is some other legal severe issue (e.g. libel, privacy). It reports unethical research. It has been published solely based on a compromised or manipulated peer review process
  • The author(s) failed to disclose a major conflict of interest that, in the editor's view, would have unduly affected interpretations of the work or recommendations by editors and peer reviewers.

Notices of retraction should

  • Be linked to the retracted article wherever possible (i.e., in all online versions)
  • Clearly identify the retracted article (e.g., by including the title and authors in the retraction heading or citing the retracted article)
  • Be clearly identified as a retraction (i.e., distinct from other types of correction or comment)
  • Be published promptly to minimize harmful effects
  • Be freely available to all readers (i.e., not behind access barriers or available only to subscribers)
  • State who is retracting the article
  • State the reason(s) for retraction
  • Be objective, factual and avoid inflammatory language

 Retractions are not usually appropriate if

  • The authorship is disputed, but there is no reason to doubt the validity of the findings
  • The main findings of the work are still reliable, and corrections could sufficiently address errors or concerns
  • An editor has inconclusive evidence to support retraction or is awaiting additional information such as from an institutional investigation
  • Author conflicts of interest have been reported to the journal after publication, but in the editor's view, these are not likely to have influenced interpretations or recommendations or the conclusions of the article.


Copyright and License Statement

Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:


  1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
  2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
  3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).


License Grant. Subject to the terms and conditions of this License, Licensor hereby grants You a worldwide, royalty-free, non-exclusive, perpetual (for the duration of the applicable copyright) license to exercise the rights in the Work as stated below:

  1. to Reproduce the Work, to incorporate the Work into one or more Collections, and to Reproduce the Work as incorporated in the Collections;
  2. to create and Reproduce Adaptations provided that any such Adaptation, including any translation in any medium, takes reasonable steps to clearly label, demarcate or otherwise identify that changes were made to the original Work. For example, a translation could be marked "The original work was translated from English to Spanish," or a modification could indicate "The original work has been modified.";
  3. to Distribute and Publicly Perform the Work including as incorporated in Collections; and,
  4. to Distribute and Publicly Perform Adaptations.
  5. For the avoidance of doubt:i. Non-waivable Compulsory License Schemes. In those jurisdictions in which the right to collect royalties through any statutory or compulsory licensing scheme cannot be waived, the Licensor reserves the exclusive right to collect such royalties for any exercise by You of the rights granted under this License;ii. Waivable Compulsory License Schemes. In those jurisdictions in which the right to collect royalties through any statutory or compulsory licensing scheme can be waived, the Licensor waives the exclusive right to collect such royalties for any exercise by You of the rights granted under this License; and,iii. Voluntary License Schemes. The Licensor waives the right to collect royalties, whether individually or, in the event that the Licensor is a member of a collecting society that administers voluntary licensing schemes, via that society, from any exercise by You of the rights granted under this License.

The above rights may be exercised in all media and formats whether now known or hereafter devised. The above rights include the right to make such modifications as are technically necessary to exercise the rights in other media and formats. Subject to Section 8(f), all rights not expressly granted by Licensor are hereby reserved.

Restrictions. The license granted in Section 3 above is expressly made subject to and limited by the following restrictions:

  1. You may Distribute or Publicly Perform the Work only under the terms of this License. You must include a copy of, or the Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) for, this License with every copy of the Work You Distribute or Publicly Perform. You may not offer or impose any terms on the Work that restrict the terms of this License or the ability of the recipient of the Work to exercise the rights granted to that recipient under the terms of the License. You may not sublicense the Work. You must keep intact all notices that refer to this License and to the disclaimer of warranties with every copy of the Work You Distribute or Publicly Perform. When You Distribute or Publicly Perform the Work, You may not impose any effective technological measures on the Work that restrict the ability of a recipient of the Work from You to exercise the rights granted to that recipient under the terms of the License. This Section 4(a) applies to the Work as incorporated in a Collection, but this does not require the Collection apart from the Work itself to be made subject to the terms of this License. If You create a Collection, upon notice from any Licensor You must, to the extent practicable, remove from the Collection any credit as required by Section 4(b), as requested. If You create an Adaptation, upon notice from any Licensor You must, to the extent practicable, remove from the Adaptation any credit as required by Section 4(b), as requested.
  2. If You Distribute, or Publicly Perform the Work or any Adaptations or Collections, You must, unless a request has been made pursuant to Section 4(a), keep intact all copyright notices for the Work and provide, reasonable to the medium or means You are utilizing: (i) the name of the Original Author (or pseudonym, if applicable) if supplied, and/or if the Original Author and/or Licensor designate another party or parties (e.g., a sponsor institute, publishing entity, journal) for attribution ("Attribution Parties") in Licensor's copyright notice, terms of service or by other reasonable means, the name of such party or parties; (ii) the title of the Work if supplied; (iii) to the extent reasonably practicable, the URI, if any, that Licensor specifies to be associated with the Work, unless such URI does not refer to the copyright notice or licensing information for the Work; and (iv) , consistent with Section 3(b), in the case of an Adaptation, a credit identifying the use of the Work in the Adaptation (e.g., "French translation of the Work by Original Author," or "Screenplay based on original Work by Original Author"). The credit required by this Section 4 (b) may be implemented in any reasonable manner; provided, however, that in the case of a Adaptation or Collection, at a minimum such credit will appear, if a credit for all contributing authors of the Adaptation or Collection appears, then as part of these credits and in a manner at least as prominent as the credits for the other contributing authors. For the avoidance of doubt, You may only use the credit required by this Section for the purpose of attribution in the manner set out above and, by exercising Your rights under this License, You may not implicitly or explicitly assert or imply any connection with, sponsorship or endorsement by the Original Author, Licensor and/or Attribution Parties, as appropriate, of You or Your use of the Work, without the separate, express prior written permission of the Original Author, Licensor and/or Attribution Parties.
  3. Except as otherwise agreed in writing by the Licensor or as may be otherwise permitted by applicable law, if You Reproduce, Distribute or Publicly Perform the Work either by itself or as part of any Adaptations or Collections, You must not distort, mutilate, modify or take other derogatory action in relation to the Work which would be prejudicial to the Original Author's honor or reputation. Licensor agrees that in those jurisdictions (e.g. Japan), in which any exercise of the right granted in Section 3(b) of this License (the right to make Adaptations) would be deemed to be a distortion, mutilation, modification or other derogatory action prejudicial to the Original Author's honor and reputation, the Licensor will waive or not assert, as appropriate, this Section, to the fullest extent permitted by the applicable national law, to enable You to reasonably exercise Your right under Section 3(b) of this License (right to make Adaptations) but not otherwise.

Representations, Warranties and Disclaimer




  1. This License and the rights granted hereunder will terminate automatically upon any breach by You of the terms of this License. Individuals or entities who have received Adaptations or Collections from You under this License, however, will not have their licenses terminated provided such individuals or entities remain in full compliance with those licenses. Sections 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, and 8 will survive any termination of this License.
  2. Subject to the above terms and conditions, the license granted here is perpetual (for the duration of the applicable copyright in the Work). Notwithstanding the above, Licensor reserves the right to release the Work under different license terms or to stop distributing the Work at any time; provided, however that any such election will not serve to withdraw this License (or any other license that has been, or is required to be, granted under the terms of this License), and this License will continue in full force and effect unless terminated as stated above.


  1. Each time You Distribute or Publicly Perform the Work or a Collection, the Licensor offers to the recipient a license to the Work on the same terms and conditions as the license granted to You under this License.
  2. Each time You Distribute or Publicly Perform an Adaptation, Licensor offers to the recipient a license to the original Work on the same terms and conditions as the license granted to You under this License.
  3. If any provision of this License is invalid or unenforceable under applicable law, it shall not affect the validity or enforceability of the remainder of the terms of this License, and without further action by the parties to this agreement, such provision shall be reformed to the minimum extent necessary to make such provision valid and enforceable.
  4. No term or provision of this License shall be deemed waived and no breach consented to unless such waiver or consent shall be in writing and signed by the party to be charged with such waiver or consent.
  5. This License constitutes the entire agreement between the parties with respect to the Work licensed here. There are no understandings, agreements or representations with respect to the Work not specified here. Licensor shall not be bound by any additional provisions that may appear in any communication from You. This License may not be modified without the mutual written agreement of the Licensor and You.
  6. The rights granted under, and the subject matter referenced, in this License were drafted utilizing the terminology of the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works (as amended on September 28, 1979), the Rome Convention of 1961, the WIPO Copyright Treaty of 1996, the WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty of 1996 and the Universal Copyright Convention (as revised on July 24, 1971). These rights and subject matter take effect in the relevant jurisdiction in which the License terms are sought to be enforced according to the corresponding provisions of the implementation of those treaty provisions in the applicable national law. If the standard suite of rights granted under applicable copyright law includes additional rights not granted under this License, such additional rights are deemed to be included in the License; this License is not intended to restrict the license of any rights under applicable law.

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